What is HPV?
HPV or Human Papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD). HPV is a different virus than HIV and HSV (herpes). HPV is so common that nearly all sexually active men and women get it at some point in their lives. There are many different types of HPV. Some types can cause health problems including genital warts and cancers. But there are vaccines that can stop these health problems from happening.
Signs and Symptoms
- Most people have no symptoms
- Develop within weeks or months after exposure, or not at all
- Soft fleshy lumps on or near genitals or anus
- Itching or burning around genitals
- Warts may be hidden in the vagina or anus
- The warts may go away with treatment, but the HPV infection can persist
- In 90% of cases, HPV disappears spontaneously within 2 years after infection
Genital Warts are spread by:
- Vaginal sex
- Oral sex (rare)
- Anal sex
- Contact with infected person’s warts
- Infected mother to newborn (very rare)
- Warts/HPV may be spread even if no warts are visible because the virus may be present on areas not protected by a condom
If left untreated, Genital Warts can:
- Spread to sex partners
- Be passed to newborn during childbirth; can cause warts in infant’s throat (very rare)
Some virus strains lead to abnormal Pap tests and increased risk of cervical cancer, but these strains do not cause visible warts. Sexually active women should have yearly Pap tests starting 3 years after they first had sex. HPV may also play a role in cancers of the anus, mouth/throat, penis, and vagina.
A physician may perform a special test to identify the cancer-associated strains.
- Gardasil-9 is the vaccine available for males and females age 9-26 years of age to protect against the types of HPV that cause most cases of cancer and genital warts.
- HPV vaccination is also recommended for some people age 27-45 years of age if they are not already vaccinated. People in this age range should speak to their doctor about the benefits of HPV vaccine for them.
- The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is to abstain from sexual contact or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.
- Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission only when the infected areas are covered or protected by the condom.
- Use a new latex condom properly for any sexual contact.
- Limit the number of sex partners.
Testing and Treatment
- Get an exam from a medical provider if infection is suspected.
- Warts can be treated, but HPV cannot be cured.
- HPV requires medical treatment by doctor.
- Drugstore treatment for other kinds of warts may be harmful if used on genital warts.
“High risk” HPV strains that cause cancer do not cause visible genital warts. But, high-risk strains may be present along with visible warts.
The body may eventually clear the virus with or without treatment.
The HPV vaccine that is licensed by the FDA, recommended by CDC and currently distributed in the USA is Gardasil-9 (made by Merck).